Among the early Muslims, women were active participants in the cohesive functioning of the society. Women expressed their opinions freely and their advice was actively sought. Women nursed the wounded during battles, and some even participated on the battlefield. Women traded openly in the marketplace, so much so that the second caliph, Umar, appointed a woman, Shaffa bint Abdullah, as the supervisor of the bazaar.
In Islamic history, women participated in government, public affairs, lawmaking, scholarship, and teaching. To continue to uphold this tradition, women are encouraged to actively participate in improving, serving, and leading the different aspects of the community. Before Islam, women all across the globe were deprived of inheritance and were themselves considered property to be inherited by men.
Islam gave women the right to own property and inherit from relatives, which was a revolutionary concept in the seventh century. This share depends on her degree of relationship to the deceased and the number of heirs. In Islam, women are not obligated to earn or spend any money on housing, food, or general expenses. She also has the right to work and spend the money she earns as she wishes. She has no obligation to share her money with her husband or any other family members, although she may choose to do so out of good will.
For instance, Khadija, the wife of the Prophet Muhammad pbuh , was one of the most successful businesswomen ofMecca, and she freely spent from her wealth to support her husband and the cause of Islam.
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At the time of marriage, a woman is entitled to a financial gift dowry from her husband. This dowry is legally owned by her and cannot be used by anyone else. In the case of divorce, she has the right to keep whatever she owned before the divorce and anything she personally earned after marriage. The former husband has no right whatsoever to any of her belongings.
A woman has the right to accept or reject marriage proposals and her approval is required to complete the marriage contract. She cannot be forced to marry someone against her will and if this occurs for cultural reasons, it is in direct opposition of Islam. By the same principle, women also have the right to seek divorce if they are dissatisfied with their marriage. In Islam, marriage is based on mutual peace, love, and compassion. His example of being helpful around the household and treating his family with compassion and love is a tradition that Muslims strive to implement in their daily lives.
Muhammad pbuh treated his wives with the utmost respect and honor and was never abusive towards them. Any form of emotional, physical, or psychological abuse is prohibited in Islam and the improper treatment of women is no exception to this rule. Indeed, there is no teaching in Islam, when studied in its complete context, which condones any kind of domestic violence.
Islam clearly disallows any form of oppression or abuse, according to Dr. Zainab Alwani, a leading female Muslim scholar. It cannot be stated enough times that anyone who exercises unjust authority in the name of Islam is actually doing so to uphold their own cultural influences or personal interests.
In an environment which constantly emphasizes the physical form through various media, women are constantly faced with an unattainable standard of beauty. Although Muslim women are falsely classified as oppressed based on their modest dress, they are in fact liberated from such objectification by the society around them. In this regard, Muslim women identify with Mary, the mother of Jesus pbuh , who is known for her piety and modesty.
In conclusion, Islam has an extensive tradition of protecting the civil liberties of women based on the guidelines set forth by God and His Prophet. Women are empowered with many rights and protections under Islamic law and are honored with a dignified stature in society. Previous Next. View Larger Image. Request a copy. View in PDF. Education Back in the 7 th century, Muhammad pbuh declared that the pursuit of knowledge is obligatory on every Muslim — male and female.
Motherhood In Islam, God clearly gives mothers a high status and elevates their position in the family. It is the sacred scripture of Islam which opens up the true and perfect path to salvation. It contains a complete code of teachings and laws suitable to the needs of every age and provides the means for the spiritual and moral development of all mankind, as well as providing the remedy for its ills.
There are one hundred and fourteen chapters. By demonstrating the Word of God in a practical way, he simplified the problems of day to day living.
Hadith means the words actually spoken by the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him , or words that describe an observed incident related to his life. Hadith, which encompass every aspect of Islamic teachings and philosophy, were narrated by his close companions and compiled for the benefit of his followers and posterity.
There are many compilations of Hadith. However, six are considered to be the most genuine and authentic. Sufficient is Allah as a Witness. Born in A. Under Divine guidance he migrated to Medinah, where the first Muslim community Ummah was established. Islam spread rapidly, and when the Holy Prophet returned to Mecca ten years after his migration, it was in triumph with ten thousand followers. Muhammad peace and blessings of Allah be on him forgave those who had opposed him and continued to propagate the teachings of Islam far and wide. At the time of his death in A.
The followers of other prophets have claimed them to be model men, but only the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him proclaimed himself to be a model for all mankind. Only he had a Divine proclamation declaring him to be as such. After the death of the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him , the third type of Khilafat was established by Allah.
It was known as the Khilafate Rashida the righteous Khilafat. The mission of these Khalifasis to protect the Law, and to bring people back to the right path. The special signs and characteristics of these Khalifas are:. The khalifa should fortify the spiritual organization set up by him and protect it from the enemies of Islam. Only a person whose life closely paralleled that of the Holy Prophet in terms of spirituality, piety and knowledge could be appointed his Khalifa.
Accordingly, Hazrat Abu Bakr, the closest companion of the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him , was named his first successor. After the passing of Hazrat Ali, many factions sprung up among the Muslims, and the appointment of the khalifabecame a dynastic succession of the ruling families. The institution of Khilafat was restored to its previous position in this century after the death of the Promised Messiah peace be on him , with all the Divinely ordained conditions that accompanied the Righteous Khilafat.
See later in this chapter. Anyone reading a newspaper or listening to the media today is aware that many different Islamic groups exist throughout the Muslim world. These groups, known as sects, differ with one another on the interpretation of some Islamic beliefs and their practice. The development of sects within Islam began very early in Islamic history. In fact, upon the death of the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him and the appointment of the first Khalifa, Hazrat Abu Bakr, differences in the community began to surface almost immediately.
These differences and disagreements heightened to such a degree that the unity of the Islamic community was threatened. Indeed, within thirty years, the followers of Islam split and separated into two different sects. These are:. This is the main sect of Muslims today. They accept the authority of the Khilafate Rashideen the rightly guided successors and follow closely the custom and practice sunnah of the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him. The Shias form a separate faction, originating from their belief that only Hazrat Ali was the legitimate successor to the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him.
They disown the three other Khalifate Rashideen. The Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him foretold of such divisions among his followers, and indeed, there are now seventy-three sects in Islam. Some important sects and their relationship with the two mainstream sects are:. Ahmadiyyat is a sect of Islam, and not a new religion. It is, in fact, the renaissance of Islam. He claimed to be the Messiah and Mahdi whose coming was foretold by the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him.
His followers are called Ahmadi Muslims. Ahmadi Muslims strictly follow the orthodox religion of Islam and have not added or taken out anything as far as the fundamental beliefs and acts of worship are concerned. Ahmadi Muslims have the same kind of enthusiasm for Islam as the early followers of the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him.
They are devoted to the service of Islam and the spread of its teachings throughout the world. There are three areas where the beliefs of Ahmadi Muslims differ from that of other Sunni Muslims. Non-Ahmadi Muslims interpret the verse to mean that there can be no prophet of any kind after Hazrat Muhammad peace and blessings of Allah be on him , that the door of revelation has closed forever and that Allah will never speak directly to His servants again.
Ahmadi Muslims, on the other hand believe that Allah reveals Himself and speaks to His created beings and will continue to do so till the end of time. They believe that prophethood will continue, but that there will never be any new law-bearing prophet after the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him. Any prophet coming after him must be his follower and, therefore, come from the fold of Islam.
This is what the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him himself prophesied, when he foretold the coming of Isa ibn Maryam from among his followers to rejuvenate Islam in the latter days. Ahmadis believe that this prophecy has been fulfilled in the coming of the Promised Messiah. Non-Ahmadi Muslims also believe this prophecy, but still await its fulfillment.
The differences between Ahmadi Muslims and non-Ahmadi Muslims regarding Jesus peace be on him are quite significant. Many non-Ahmadis believe that Jesus was never put on the cross and that his place was taken by someone who resembled him. According to them, Jesus was physically lifted up into the heavens where he waits for his return to earth as the second advent. Ahmadis believe that Jesus was put on the cross, but did not die on it. He was unconscious when taken down from the cross, having been nailed to it for only a few hours. He was nursed back to health by his close companions, and then traveled east to Kashmir, a northern province of India.
There, he fulfilled his actual mission which was to preach to the lost tribes of Israel. He died a natural death at a considerable old age and his tomb can be found in Srinigar, Kashmir, India. The Coming of the Promised Messiah. All Muslims believe that in the Latter days a Reformer Messiah and Mahdi would appear and restore the religion of Islam to its former glory. There are many Hadithwhich refer to the coming of the Reformer, and present signs for his advent.
Non-Ahmadi Muslims have adopted the belief that as Jesus did not die but ascended bodily to heaven, he will return as the Messiah in the latter days of Islam. They also claim that the Mahdi who they believe is a different person and would be from the fold of Islam will spread Islam with a sword and wage war on all those who disbelieve. Ahmadi Muslims reject this interpretation. They believe that Jesus has already died as all mortals must, and thus he cannot return. They interpret the second advent of Jesus peace be on him as a spiritual event, similar to the second coming of Elijah, as explained by Jesus himself.
Just as John the Baptist had come fulfilling the prophecy of the second coming of Elijah, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad peace be on him has come fulfilling the prophecy of the second advent of Jesus peace be on him. He came to revitalize the religion of Islam and his sword was his pen, with which he asserted the truth and superiority of Islam. Born in in Qadian, India, his life greatly mirrored that of the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him.
He became acclaimed from an early age for his truthfulness, piety and integrity.
His knowledge of Islam and his devoted defense of it against all critics was renowned. However, when he declared himself to be the Promised Messiah under Divine guidance in , those that had revered him now attacked him. In fact, he fulfilled all the existing prophecies concerning the advent of a reformer in the latter days. He also emphasized that his purpose in being appointed by Allah was to bring new life to the religion of Islam, which had become polluted and corrupted over the ages, and to establish its supremacy over all other religions.
He brought no new teachings, but was the most devoted follower and servant of the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him. He will be a just judge and will break the cross and destroy the swine and will set aside a war. This hadithhas been fulfilled by Hazrat Ahmad peace be on him. He broke the cross by showing that Jesus died a natural death and that the Christian doctrines of Atonement and Trinity have no foundation.
His mission was to show the beauties of Islam by peaceful means, by learned discussion, arguments, and writings, not by the sword. To this end he wrote more than eighty books during his lifetime, in four different languages. Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad peace be on him died in , leaving behind him a community of thousands, which has now swelled to millions worldwide and is carrying on with his mission.
The institution of Khalifat successors was reestablished after the death of the Promised Messiah in the same tradition as the Khilafate Rashida the Righteous Successors. To the present day there have been four Khalifas. He is a grandson of the Promised Messiah. For further information on the Ahmadiyya Khilafat, please see Chapter 7 of this book. Unfortunately, the western media often portrays Islam in an erroneous way and creates a picture of rigid and fanatical fundamentalists. This is, of course, far from the truth.
Islam is a universal religion. It claims to be the true way to God for all peoples, for all time. The concept of universality in a religion requires that it overcomes not only geographic and national boundaries, but also the boundaries of time. Only Islam is able to make this claim, because it is a religion whose teachings are related to the human psyche, i. Islam emphasizes that any religion which is rooted in the human psyche transcends time and space. As the human psyche is unchangeable, then the religion which is closely connected to it is unchangeable also.
Islam is the only religion that accepts previous teachings and their bearers as coming from God. It does stipulate however, that these teachings have been tampered with, and can no longer be relied on as true guidance. This acceptance and incorporation of other scriptures makes Islam a truly universal religion. For a religion to be truly universal, it has to appeal to people of all natures and cultures.
Therefore it cannot be a teaching that is forced on others.
Islam does not permit the use of force to spread its message. Surely, right has become distinct from wrong….. The highest form of jihad is the struggle of man with his own soul to rid it of vices and ties to the material world, and to elevate his spirit to attain nearness to Allah.
Another type of jihad may take the form of preaching and dissemination of the teaching of Islam by peaceful means. A third type of jihad is defending Islam against unprovoked aggression and attempt to physically destroy Islam by its enemies. Islam carries with it a strong message of brotherhood and the equality of man.
This is an essential ingredient of universality. Islam teaches love for all things. The Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him says:.
Islam teaches that in the sight of Allah, all men are equal regardless of race, status or wealth. He judges them only on their good deeds. The last sermon of the Holy Prophet peace and blessings of Allah be on him contains these beautiful words:. An Arab possesses no superiority over a non-Arab, nor does a non-Arab over an Arab.
By the same token, it is not permissible to listen to them. Not only is this ritual cleanliness pleasing to Allah, but it also reminds Muslims that purity of space and soul are intertwined and must always be maintained. Or does one take them literally? I agreed with the other party that if they changed their mind and wanted to withdraw from the deal within five months of the sale, they may do so provided that they return the money I parted with as a price for the property. Muhammad pbuh treated his wives with the utmost respect and honor and was never abusive towards them.
A white is no way superior to a red, nor for that matter, a red to a white, but only to the extent to which he discharges his duty to God and man. The most honored among you in the sight of God is the most righteous among you. All Muslims are as brethren to each other.
All of you are equal. All men, whatever station in life they may hold, are equal. While he was saying this, the Prophet raised his hands and joined the fingers of the one hand with the fingers of the other hand and then said:. No one has any right, any superiority to claim over another.
You are as brothers… What I command today is not meant only for today. It is meant for all time. You are expected to remember it and act upon it until you leave this world and go to the next to meet your Maker. Malik Ghulam Farid et al. Ahmed, Tayyba Seema. Chatper 1: Islamic Beliefs and Teachings The religion of Islam provides a complete code of law and guidance. Unity of Allah Tauheed Acknowledgment of the Oneness of Allah is the most important principle of Islam, being the cornerstone of the faith and the basis for salvation.
Books Kutub Muslims believe that Allah revealed His laws in stages to mankind through His prophets, and therefore accept the Torah of Moses peace be on him , the Psalms of David peace be on him and the Gospel Injeel of Jesus peace be on him as holy books, as well as the sacred scriptures of all other messengers of Allah. Divine Decree Taqdir Muslims believe that Divine Decree controls the eventual outcome of all actions in this universe. Other Important Beliefs of Muslims Apart from the six fundamental beliefs already discussed, there are many other important beliefs in Islam.
Some of them are: Muslims believe that every person is born innocent and free from sin. Only when he reaches maturity of understanding and can distinguish between right and wrong, does he become accountable for his actions. Muslims believe that Allah does not hold anyone responsible unless He has shown him the right way. Allah has always sent messengers and revelations before inflicting His punishment on people.
Muslims are required to follow their faith with reasoning and understanding, not blindly. They are: 1.